People and jurors have commonly held beliefs that are in conflict with our issues in our cases. After decades of the national Chamber  of Commerce, big business and insurance industry propaganda against tort litigation and plaintiff trial attorneys, we can assume that all jurors  have been tainted to one extent or another with anti tort bias. Given the political fighting over immigration, we can assume that representing an immigrant, especially an undocumented one, has issues as does representing Muslims. Then there is inherent racial and minority bias we all have to one  degree or another. Auto drivers are likely going to have adverse feelings about motorcycle and bicycle injury cases. There are numerous other stereotyping biases.  The challenge of this kind of prejudice is that the person who has the bias  may either deny having such a bias  or underestimate the degree of the latent bias or firmly believe they can intellectually isolate any such bias and “be fair.”

When representing a plaintiff with issues that will likely  trigger inherent bias the question becomes how to deal with it in jury selection. Different trial lawyers have various  ways of handling this. I’d like to share my approach using a plaintiff injured in a car motorcycle collision as my example.  I suppose I should point out that my approach was always to be totally candid in acknowledging any issue in a trial. However, over the years I spent time with Gerry Spence including my years of teaching at the Trial College. and we had lots of discussions about trial and  I was exposed  to his style in our teaching together. After awhile what you have learned to do by your own experience and what you have absorbed from long exposure to other lawyers  like Gerry totally blur. As a result probably most of this is not original with me but borrowed from others.

To start with, in my view, looking  for assurances from jurors,  through closed ended questioning, that they can be fair regarding bias is a waste of valuable voir dire  time. Many people don’t think they have a bias, when they do, at least at a subconscious level and because they don’t want to admit it or give assurances about it they can’t possibly keep. It is likewise a  waste of time to plan on establishing the bias of  prospective jurors and challenging them for  cause to legally excuse them from serving.  Too many people will deny the bias  or insist they can set it aside or deliberately conceal it or  because they are intimidated from revealing  they have a bias. In addition, judges are often reluctant to sustain the challenge and instead step  in to rehabilitate the juror. In most states you don’t have enough preemptory excuses to accomplish it either.

I believe the only realistic way to deal with this  kind of inherent bias is a several step process. You first acknowledge the existence of  the bias in yourself when the case was  first offered to you. By admitting to the bias you thereby become part of the group of others in  the jury pool  who feel the same way.  The second step is to open non judgmental,  full and open discussion about the issue to demonstrate your willingness to have free discussion and  at the same time  to identify those who feel this way. Next,  using suggestions of extreme positions, you stimulate a discussion about how it should be dealt with in trial.  This results in the jurors discussing the need for a fair trial and making your arguments plus creating a public commitment by jurors to be  fair. This also encourages the jurors who simply can’t overcome  their negative attitudes to be honest about  it and excuse themselves.

The  process I follow is that the  lawyer begins, before ever asking any juror about the subject, by telling them you want to talk about the “elephant in  the room” by acknowledging that as the lawyer for this injured motorcycle driver you are embarrassed to admit your reluctance, when the case was first offered, to accept representation because of having a negative attitude towards people  who ride motorcycles. As an auto driver you  had  the idea  riding  motorcycles is a risky activity normal people should avoid.  Over the time you have represented (name of  client), however,  you  gained an appreciation for his or her love of  motorcycles and your admiration of this fine person. But, since you had this initial reaction to a motorcycle injury case, you wonder if others have the same initial reaction you had? Ask for hands of those jurors who are willing to share with you the same feelings you have. It  is critical you have the courage to stand and wait for hands to go up. Be willing to say nothing, keep eye contact and not move until a hand goes up you will eventually get hands  going up and which will happen easier if you hold your  own hand up.

When there is a public acknowledgment of the same feelings you have, you have become a member of the group who feel the same way. You all are together in this attitude and that makes  you a member  of their “tribe” or group. You aren’t an outsider lawyer accusing them of bias.

Thank them for having the courage to  raise their hands. The  next step is  to have an open discussion about why “we” feel this way. Note  that it is not “I” and “you.” It is “we” because you are a member  of their  group  or tribe. In the discussion there is no arguing with jurors  no matter  how extreme their position on the subject. To a response “anyone who rides on a motorcycle deserves what happens to them” you should say something like: “I understand how you feel. Sure, you think  it’s nuts  to  ride  a motorcycle – right? Thanks for being honest about it. I’ll bet other people agree with you. Who agrees?”   No attempts to educate them or suggest other views  or in any way  contradict them or look angry or shocked.  You should have an open posture (not crossed arms) and no frowning or non verbal objections. Instead, you nod your head to show you understand  and heard them.  You maintain constant eye contact and pause before turning to any other jurors to show “I heard you. I understand. I’m willing to listen to whatever you want to say.”

The last step is create a discussion about how they think the issue should be dealt with in trial. The discussion is what to do about all of “us” feeling this  way and  yet there is a right to a jury trial by the injured motorcyclist. This “what are we going to  do about this” discussion begins with suggestions  of extreme remedies because you want to stimulate an opposite response and to encourage other jurors from taking up your client’s  cause  and making  the arguments you would like to make.

For example, starting with questions  like these:  “What should  we do about this? Do we just make a rule that motorcycle injuries due  to negligence of others aren’t  entitled to a trial? Or maybe decide that motorcycle injuries  are only entitled to half  justice?  What suggestions do you  have about this since we are going to take  an oath to do full justice if we are selected to be on  the jury.” This leads to a discussion where jurors acknowledge the plaintiff’s  right  to a fair jury trial and public  assurances by jurors they can be fair. This creates a public commitment. We are motivated to be consistent with what we say publicly and carries into the jury room during deliberation plus allows other jurors to remind people about this discussion. It also allows you to remind them about it in final summation.

This approach always  was a comfortable one for me in jury selection because I dealt with the truth in open discussion and without trying to change minds or educate or make jury arguments. The approach demonstrates honesty, being  trustworthy and a genuine person instead of a lawyer trying to  sell something. You may have a better way of handling it because it has  to feel right to you.

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I admit I make a mistake by relying upon Dragon diction and failing to monitor the dictated material. The result: embarrassing substituted words like “heirs” when I mean “errors” and lots of them, It was negligent of me and I am sorry.

That’s what happens  when you are leaving on a trip to Europe and prepare  several posts in advance for scheduled publication while gone, but not having the responsibility to proof read them. I was shocked when I read them while traveling and embarrassed. It was negligent and I’ve now  gone  back and tried  to correct the  mistakes in the last few posts.

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The Bible has something to say about weakness. “But He said to me, my grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness… Therefore, I am content with weakness… For when I’m weak, that I’m strong. 2 Cor 12. But the power and weakness  is beyond the Biblical teaching and plays an important role in persuasion and advocacy.

For example, marketing expert Trey Ryder has written an article “Admit a Negative to vastly Increase your Credibility.” He says that when you make a statement that appears to be against your interest, your credibility soars. He cites one of the most successful mail order copywriters who used this technique in every print ad he wrote by admitting at the beginning of the at a weakness in the products he was promoting.

Rick Warren has said that: “admitting your mistakes doesn’t make you weak, it makes you credible. Francisco Dao wrote an article “can you admit you were wrong? In it he points out that while admitting our mistakes may sound simple, our psychological wiring works against this. Cognitive dissonance means that our minds actively look for evidence to support the decisions we’ve already made and our own self-image. This kind of confirmation bias is so strong that we end up convincing ourselves of things that make no sense otherwise. He suggests that since confirmation bias and cognitive dissonance are hardwired into our minds we have trouble admitting we’ve made a mistake and if we do admit it we make excuses at the same time. Our own experience is that it is rare for leaders to accept responsibility for a mistake without also offering excuses or extenuating circumstances. While political leaders have problems clearly and candidly admitting mistakes or weaknesses the example of President Kennedy and the failed Bay of Pigs invasion should be followed. Kennedy said: “this administration intends to be candid about its errors. For as a wise man once said, an error does not become a mistake until you refuse to correct it. The final responsibility for the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion was mine and mine alone.” Offering no excuses or justifications Kennedy’s popularity skyrocketed.

This refusal to accept responsibility for weaknesses and mistakes while blaming others is ingrained into our culture. Carol Tavris and Elliott Aronson  have reviewed this in their book Mistakes were Made, but not by Me. When a mistake is viewed as a failure that cannot be tolerated people have difficulty admitting their mistakes.

Amy Rees Anderson has written an article Admitting you were Wrong doesn’t Make you weak – It makes you Awesome! She argues that:

  1. weakness enlarges empathy because those who embrace their own frailties understand others better.
  2. Weakness reduces arrogance. Leaders who don’t see their weaknesses are generally arrogant people.
  3. Admitting weakness increases our credibility with others

Certainly the opposite of weakness, power, has its own dangers. Lord Acton is famous for observing: “power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” James F Burns noted that “power intoxicate’s men. When a man is intoxicated by alcohol he can recover, but when intoxicated by power he seldom recovers.” In addition power and pride go together. Excessive pride obscures the knowledge that humility is the indispensable virtue for greatness.

Where does all of this lead us intellectually? Well, for one thing, knowing the weaknesses of your case and having the courage to openly admit them to a jury (in the most favorable framing) is a powerful act. First, it increases your credibility greatly and second, it inoculates the jurors from any shock by a later disclosure by defendant. Then there is the benefit of being seen as honest, truthful and trustworthy. Furthermore, there is the added subconscious benefit in the jury natural inclination to help the helpless or root for the underdog. What’s our reaction to a child in need or a baby or anyone suffering? It is to reach out and help. In a David vs Goliath struggle, who do we root for? There is great power in weakness if we have the courage to expose it publically.

Then there is the matter of admitting our mistakes, openly, clearly and without excuse or evasion. I have a friend who is now retired and was  an outstanding plaintiff’s  attorney. He once told me about a trial in which his expert witness was totally undone on cross examination to the point the witness was a complete disaster. He said that in summation he accepted full responsibility for failing  in his obligation to ensure he presented only credible and qualified experts. He confessed his great embarrassment and shame at having lost their trust in him,  but asked them not to punish his client for having a lawyer who failed in his  duty to his client. The verdict reflected that the jury had forgiven him because he  had  been totally honest and  truthful about the witness disaster,  had not made excuses and took full responsibility. That’s the power of conceding our mistakes even when it is embarrassing and painful.

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